The proposed work applies an interdisciplinary approach to bridge knowledge gaps through understanding billfish interactions (socio-ecological), associated livelihoods (socio-economic characteristics) and linkages (governance) which will have manifold implications on overall species health, ecosystem functioning, food and economic security, and multi-scale management given the transboundary nature of these species. Consequently, the proposed project addresses several MASMA priority research themes including socio-ecological approaches for the sustainable use of marine living resources, contribution to food security and safety, understanding biodiversity and its change, and impacts and mitigation of the risks of climate change. Acknowledging the limited studies in the WIO on billfish and associated fisheries, the findings will provide significant knowledge to support efforts on ensuring sustainable fisheries, food and economic security, and sound governance. In addition, findings will provide a framework for further investigations and policy change at local and regional scale. It is expected that this proposed work will complement on-going work by the Indian Ocean Tuna Commission (IOTC), National Fisheries Institutions, regional projects on improving data collection, management and assessments of vulnerable billfish stocks that are subject to over-fishing.